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谢伏瞻:中国经济发展与中波合作前景

谢伏瞻:中国经济发展与中波合作前景

发布时间: 2019-04-18 08:58:40   作者:谢伏瞻   来源: 中国驻波兰大使馆   浏览次数:

中国经济发展与中波合作前景

中国社会科学院院长谢伏瞻在“经济全球化与中欧、中波关系”国际会议上的讲话

2019/04/12


尊敬的各位来宾,

  女士们,先生们,大家好!

  很高兴来到华沙大学参加今天的会议。首先,我代表中国社会科学院,向大力支持会议举办的波兰政府和华沙大学、波兰亚洲中心表示诚挚敬意和衷心感谢!向出席会议的专家学者表示热烈欢迎!

  波兰地处欧亚大陆十字路口,是中东欧地区人口、国土面积、经济体量最大的国家,也是欧盟重要的成员国。新中国成立之初,波兰是最早承认并同新中国建交的国家之一,两国人民友谊源远流长。

  今年是中华人民共和国成立70周年,也是中波建交70周年。2016年6月,习近平主席对波兰进行历史性访问,两国元首一致决定将中波关系提升为全面战略伙伴关系,开启了两国关系发展史上的新篇章。前不久,波兰驻华大使专门到我院交流,我们一致认为,中波之间长期保持着良好的双边关系,各领域务实合作不断深化,给两国人民带来了实实在在的好处。

  借今天会议机会,我对中国经济发展和中波合作的新机遇谈些看法。

  一、中国经济发展成就不仅造福中国也惠及世界

  新中国成立70年特别是改革开放40年来,中国经济发展取得了举世瞩目的成就,中国社会面貌发生了根本性的伟大变革。之所以能够取得如此成就,关键是以下几点。

  (一)坚持以经济建设为中心,坚定不移扩大对外开放 

  中国的经济发展,尤其是改革开放,大大提升了中国人民的获得感幸福感,近14亿人民实现了从温饱不足到小康富裕的伟大飞跃。新中国成立后,在“一穷二白”的基础上,我们自力更生建立起比较完整的国民经济体系和门类齐全的现代工业体系,为后来的发展打下了坚实基础。改革开放40年来,中国实现了GDP的快速增长和人均国民收入的大幅度提高,国内生产总值从1978年的3679亿元增长到去年底的90万亿元,增长了近244倍;人均GDP约9500美元,成功地由低收入国家跨入中等偏上收入国家行列;在短时间实现最大规模脱贫和减贫,约7.5亿人口摆脱贫困,为世界减贫事业做出了显著贡献;在相对较短的时间实现从传统农业社会向现代工业社会的跃升,工业化、城镇化、信息化和农业现代化同步发展。

  中国的改革是与对外开放同步深入、相互促进的。以开放促改革、促发展是中国现代化建设不断取得新成就的重要法宝。中国坚持对外开放的基本国策,形成了全方位、多层次、宽领域的全面开放新格局,为经济发展创造了良好的国际环境、开拓了广阔的发展空间。改革开放40年来特别是加入WTO以来,中国深入推动贸易自由化便利化,货物进出口总额占世界的比重由1978年的0.8%上升为2018年的11.7%,服务贸易进出口总额从世界第34位上升为世界第2位。中国还积极打造国际合作新平台,提出“一带一路”倡议,发起创立了亚洲基础设施投资银行和金砖国家新开发银行,为全球合作发展增添新动力。实践证明,中国的发展离不开世界,世界的繁荣也离不开中国。

  (二)坚持使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用,同时更好发挥政府作用

  中国经济体制改革的根本目的是解放生产力,发展生产力,是做大蛋糕,分好蛋糕;核心问题是处理好政府和市场的关系。市场配置资源是发展经济的有效方式,是市场经济的内在要求和一般规律,中国的市场经济也不例外。所不同的是,我们是从高度集中的计划经济向社会主义市场经济转型,没有可资借鉴的成熟经验。我们牢牢把握中国国情,坚持中国特色,把顶层设计和摸着石头过河,整体推进和重点突破紧密结合;把坚持社会主义的本质特征与发挥市场经济的积极作用有机结合,改革高度集中僵化的计划经济体制,充分发挥价格、利率、汇率、税率等经济杠杆的调节作用,逐步建立起产品、资本、土地、劳动力、技术等统一开放、竞争有序的市场体系,大幅度简政放权,减税让利,充分调动各市场主体的积极性、主动性和创造性。同时,又对那些市场管不了、管不好的领域和方面,注重更好发挥政府作用,正确处理好改革、发展、稳定的关系,在全面深化改革的进程中,推进经济长期平稳健康发展和社会和谐稳定。

  (三)坚持不断完善法治体系,全面推进依法治国

  完善的市场经济体制与完善的法治体系是相辅相成的。中国的改革开放,也是不断推进依法治国、建设法治国家、法治社会的过程。改革开放以来,我们的社会主义法治建设取得历史性成就,中国特色社会主义法律体系已经形成;法治政府建设稳步推进,司法体制不断完善,全社会法治观念明显增强,人民当家作主的制度保障和法治保障更加有力。党的十八大以来,我们把全面依法治国提到与全面深化改革同等重要的高度。今年3月,《外商投资法》正式通过,中国将对所有的外商对华投资,实行准入前国民待遇和负面清单制度,国际上比较关心的知识产权保护、技术转让、企业补偿等在这部法律中都有明确规定。这对于包括波兰在内的所有在华或将来华投资的企业,都是一个基础性的法律保障,将使整个投资环境在开放、透明和可预期方面更加公平、更加规范,将使中国与世界的经济关系更加紧密、更加平衡。

  (四)坚持走和平发展道路,为世界共同发展带来机遇

  经济全球化为中国的改革开放提供了外部环境,中国既是经济全球化的参与者、受益者,更是它的推动者、贡献者。自2006年以来,中国对世界经济增长的贡献率稳居世界第一位。2018年,中国对世界经济增长的贡献率接近30%,持续成为世界经济增长最大的贡献者。中国经济的高速发展为世界带来了机遇,也给波兰带来了机遇,比如中欧班列就是一个具体的例子。

  过去40年,中国经济发展是在开放条件下取得的;未来中国经济要实现高质量发展,也必然在更加开放的条件下进行。中国市场对世界敞开了大门,这是中国融入世界经济并为世界经济做出贡献的机遇之门,不仅没有理由关上,而且只会越开越大,越开越好。

  二、中波未来合作前景广阔

  女士们,先生们!

  当今世界正在经历新一轮大发展大变革大调整,各国经济社会发展联系日益密切,全球治理体系和国际秩序变革加速推进,国际社会日益成为一个你中有我、我中有你的命运共同体,这是人类社会发展的大逻辑。与此同时,世界经济深刻调整,保护主义、单边主义有所抬头,经济全球化出现波折,多边主义和自由贸易体制受到冲击,世界经济整体发展环境面临诸多风险和不确定性。尽管如此,经济全球化仍是不可逆转的历史潮流,历史大势必将浩荡前行,为世界经济发展提供强劲动力。面对新形势新挑战,各国携手合作、共同应对挑战是唯一正确选择。

  近年来,中波在双边关系、次区域16+1合作和“一带一路”倡议下,开展了多方面合作。在2018年11月上海举办的首届中国进口博览会上,波兰政府设立了欧盟成员国中最大的展馆,并专门派出了政府代表团寻找合作机遇。展望未来,中波两国完全可以在共建“一带一路”和波兰政府“负责任的发展计划”之间寻找深化合作的契机,推动双边关系稳步提升。

  第一,深化在基础设施领域的合作。中国在基础设施领域积累了丰富的经验。波兰是欧亚大陆的交通枢纽,在“中央交通港”建设、“国家铁路计划”以及格但斯克港口合作等重大项目上,中国都可以与波兰共享经验,加强合作。

  第二,深化在开发性金融领域的合作。中国在开发性金融领域作出了可喜的尝试,积累了宝贵的经验。在波兰“负责任的发展计划”中,中波可以就开发性金融探讨具体的合作方式。中国正在继续推动同欧洲复兴与开发银行等国际金融机构的合作,积极服务于中东欧地区的互联互通建设。亚洲基础设施投资银行、丝路基金也对波兰敞开大门。

  第三,深化在科技创新方面的合作。波兰拥有大量高素质人才、扎实的基础研究和有利于创新的商业环境,这与中国企业日益攀升的创新需求高度契合。中波之间完全可以基于务实合作的精神,在科技研发与应用方面优势互补,积极服务于亚欧地区和全球。

  第四,深化智库领域的交流与合作。当今世界正面临许多全球性挑战,无论是应对单边主义、贸易保护主义对国际经济的冲击,还是解决贫富差距、移民、难民、气候变化等问题;无论是推进区域经济一体化,还是深化多边体制改革,都需要各国加强合作,都需要智库深化合作,这方面中波和中欧合作都有很大潜力。

  女士们,先生们!

  中波建交70年来,两国关系行稳致远,不断造福于两国人民,对世界产生了积极影响。我们双方可以充分利用建交70周年的契机,在中国的经济改革与波兰的经济转轨方面开展比较研究,总结经验,取长补短。在此,我真诚欢迎大家到中国社会科学院访问,与中国学者交流合作,共同推动智库研究和学术发展。

  最后,祝愿本次研讨会取得圆满成功!

  谢谢大家!

China's Economic Development and China-Poland Cooperation Prospects

Address at the forum China-Europe-Poland: Economy and Globalization by Xie Fuzhan, President of CASS

2019/04/12


Respected guests,

Ladies and Gentlemen, 


Today, I am very glad to come to the University of Warsaw to attend this joint International Conference on Economic Globalization and China-EU and China-Poland Relations. On behalf of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, I would like to express my sincere respect and thanks to the University of Warsaw, and the Poland Asia Research Center. I would like to extend my sincere welcome to the scholars who attended the conference.

Poland, located at the crossroads of Eurasia, is a country with the largest population, greatest land area and biggest economy in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as an important Member State of the European Union. At the beginning of the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Poland was one of the first countries who recognized and established diplomatic relations with China, and the friendship between the peoples of both countries has been established ever since.

The year of 2019 marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China and the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Poland. Chinese President Xi Jinping paid a historic visit to Poland in June 2016 and the leaders from both countries unanimously agreed to upgrade the China Poland Relationship to Comprehensive Strategic Partnership which opened the new chapter to bilateral relationship. Recently, the Polish ambassador to China visited to my Academy, and we both agreed that China and Poland have maintained good bilateral relations for a long time. The bilateral cooperation in various fiends is increasingly deepened which has brought concrete benefits to the peoples from both countries. 

Today I would like to take this opportunity to make some comments on China's economic development and new opportunities for China-Poland cooperation.

I. China's economic development is not only beneficial to China but also to the world.

In the 70 years since the founding of the People's Republic of China, especially in the 40 years since the Reform and Opening up, China's economic development has achieved remarkable achievements, and China's social outlook has undergone fundamental and great changes. The following are some of the most important things from such a great achievement.

(1) Insisting on the economic development as the priority and unswervingly opening up more widely towards outside.

China's economic development, especially Reform and Opening up, has greatly improved the living standard and enhanced sense of happiness of the Chinese people, and nearly 1.4 billion people have achieved a great leap from lack of food and clothing to well-off prosperity. After the founding of New China, on the basis of "economically poor and culturally blank", we built up a relatively complete national economic system and a comprehensive modern industrial system on our own, laying out a solid foundation for future development. In the past 70 years, especially in the past 40 years of Reform and Opening up, China has achieved rapid growth in GDP and a significant increase in per capita national income. GDP increased from 367.9 billion Yuan in 1978 to 90 trillion Yuan at the end of last year, an increase of nearly 244 times. The per capital GDP was about 9500 US dollar. China has successfully moved from a low-income country to upper-middle-income country. Achieve maximum scale poverty alleviation and poverty reduction in such a short period of time, about 750 million Chinese people get rid of poverty, and this is China’s significant contribution to the world's poverty reduction. China has achieved a relatively short time to transform from traditional agricultural society to modern industrial society. Industrialization, urbanization, informatization and agricultural modernization have developed simultaneously. The urbanization rate has increased from 17.92% in 1978 to 59.58% in 2018. Railways, highways, airports, urban utilities, communications infrastructure have been improved significantly, and the production of a number of industrial products ranked first in the world. In a country with such a large population and a small per capita resource, these economic and social development achievements have been achieved at the same time, and have been able to contribute more than 30% to world economic growth for many years in a row. This can be said to be a feat and miracle in the history of humankind, and it is China's great contribution to the world as the largest developing country.

China's reform is in pace with the opening-up and mutual promotion. To promote reform and development through the opening-up is an important strategic tool for China's continuous achievements in its modernization drive. China adheres to the basic national policy of opening up towards the outside world and forms an all-round, multi-level and wide-ranging new pattern of opening to the outside world, creating an encouraging international environment for economic development and exploring a great opportunity for development. In the past 40 years, especially since China's accession into WTO, China has deeply promoted trade liberalization. The proportion of total import and export of goods in the world has increased from 0.8% in 1978 to 11.7% in 2018, and the total import and export of service trade has increased from 34th in the world to 2nd in the world. China has also actively established a new platform for international cooperation, proposed the Belt and Road Initiative and initiated the creation of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Banks and the New Development Bank of the BRICS countries, adding new impetus to the development of global cooperation. Practice has proved that China cannot develop without the world, nor can a prosper world without China.

(2) Making the market play a decisive role in the allocation of resources, while better playing the role of government

The essential purpose of China's economic reform is to liberate economy and improve productivity. It is to enlarge the cake and distribute the cake in an appropriate way. The core issue is to deal with the relationship between the market and the government. The market for allocation of resources is the most effective form of economic development. It is also the internal requirement and the very general law of market economy. The market economy in China is no exception. The difference is that we are transforming from a highly centralized planning economy to a socialist market economy, and there was no previous successful experiences to draw on. China firmly grasps its national conditions and adheres to Chinese characteristics, constantly exploring and correctly handling the relationship between the high-level strategy with “touching upon the stones while crossing the river”, the relationship between the overall advancement and the key breakthroughs. China combines the essential requirements of adhering to socialism with the key role of the market economy, and reform the highly centralized planning economic system. China gives full play to the regulatory role of economic leverage such as price, interest rate, exchange rate, and tax rate, and gradually establishes a unified, open and competitive market system of products, capital, land, labor, and technology. We also greatly reduce unnecessary administrative procedure and decentralize management, reduce taxes, etc., for profit making by business, and fully mobilize the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of various market players, small or big. At the same time, we focus on better playing the role of the government and correctly handle the relationship between economic reform, sustainable development in areas where the market alone can not manage. In the process of comprehensively deepening reform, we promote long-term, sustainable and healthier economic development, social stability and cohesion. 

(3) Improving and promoting the rule of law comprehensively

The market economy system and the rule of law system complement each other. China's reform and opening up has also been a continuous process of promoting the rule of law, building a state under the rule of law. Since the reform and opening-up, China’s socialist rule of law has made historic achievements. The socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics has been formed. The governance under the rule of law has been steadily progressing, the judicial system has been constantly improving, the concept of the rule of law in the whole society has been obviously strengthened, the system guarantees of people's position and of the legal system has become more powerful. Since the Eighteenth National Congress of the Party in 2012, China has raised the comprehensive rule of law to the same level as important as the comprehensive deepening of reform and opening up. The latest development in this regard is the Foreign Investment Law, just adopted by the National People's Congress in March of this year, under which China will implement the pre-admission national treatment and negative list system for all foreign investment in China, as for the protection of intellectual property rights, technology transfer and enterprise compensation which are of international concerns, there are definite legal provisions. This is a fundamental legal guarantee for all enterprises, including those from Poland, that come to or will invest in China, to make the entire investment environment more equitable, transparent and predictable, and to make China's market more open, inclusive, fair, and more balanced.

(4) Adhering to the path of peace and development for the world

Economic globalization provides the favorable environment for China's reform and opening-up. China is both a participant and an actor in economic globalization, as well as a promoter and a contributor. Since 2006, China's contribution to world economic growth has ranked the first in the world. In 2018, China's contribution to world economic growth reached about 30%, remaining the number-one contributor to world economy.

China's rapid economic development has brought about opportunities for the world, which is also a chance for Poland. One example is the China-Europe Railway Express. 

China's economic development in the past 40 years has been achieved under policy opening towards outside, and the global environment for an opening development. Nest, in order to realize high-quality and more sustainable development in the future, not just high growth, we must go ahead under a more open environment. The opening of the Chinese market to the world is an opportunity for China to integrate into the world economy and also to contribute to the world economy. Not only is there no reason for China to shut it down, but it will be open deeper and wider.

II. Future Cooperation for China-Poland Relations

Ladies and gentlemen.

The world is undergoing a new round of globalization with great changes as well as great adjustment, the economic and social development of all countries is becoming closely connected, the global governance and the reform of the international order are accelerating, the international community is increasingly becoming a community of “one for all and all for one”, this is also the logic of the development for the global society. At the same time, the world economy has been adjusted thoroughly, with protectionism and unilateralism rising, and the economic globalization has been inflected, while multilateralism and free trade system are being challenged, and the overall development environment of the world economy is faced with many risks and uncertainties. However, economic globalization is an irreversible trend, and globalization is bound to move forward and provide strong impetus for the development of the world economy. Facing the new situation and new challenges, the right choice for us is to cooperate hand in hand to deal with the common challenges.

In recent years, under bilateral relations, 16+1 cooperation in the subregion and Belt and Road initiative, China and Poland has carried out various cooperation. At the first China Import Fair held in Shanghai in November 2018, the Polish government has set up the largest pavilion in the member countries of the European Union. A special government delegation was sent to look for opportunities for cooperation.

Looking forward to the future, China and Poland can find more opportunities to deepen cooperation between the co-construction under the Belt and Road Initiative and the Responsible Development Plan of the Polish government, so as to promote a more steady promotion of bilateral relations.

(1) To deepen cooperation in the field of infrastructure. 

China has accumulated rich experiences in the field of infrastructure. Poland is a transport hub for Eurasia, and China can share experiences and strengthen cooperation with Poland, whether it is building a Central Communication Port or a major infrastructure project such as the National Railway Plan (KPK) and the Gdansk Port.

(2) To deepen cooperation in the field of development finance.

China has made gratifying attempts in the field of development finance and accumulated valuable experiences. In Poland's Responsible Development Plan, China and Poland can explore specific ways of working together in development finance. At present, China is continuing to promote cooperation with international financial institutions such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and actively serve the connectivity construction in Central and Eastern Europe. The Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank, Silk Road Fund is also open to Poland.

(3) To deepen cooperation in scientific and technological innovation.

Poland has a large number of high-quality talents, solid basic research and business environment conducive to innovation, in line with the increasing demand for innovation by Chinese enterprises. For practical cooperation, China and Poland can explore the complementary advantages of R&D and application in science and technology, and actively serve Asia, Europe and even the world.

(4) To deepen exchange and cooperation in the field of think tanks. 

The world today is facing many global challenges, either to deal with unilateralism and the impact of trade protectionism, or to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor, to handle immigrants and refugees properly, jointly to work on climate change, etc.; whether to promote regional economic integration or to deepen the reform of the multilateral system, all requires countries to strengthen cooperation, including cooperation among think tanks. In this respect, China-Poland and China-EU cooperation have great potential.

Ladies and gentlemen,

In the 70 years since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Poland, the bilateral relation has been stable and far-reaching, and has been continuously benefiting the peoples of the two countries, and has had a positive impacts in the region and in the world. We can take full advantage of the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations and conduct joint comparative studies on China's economic reform and Poland's economic transition, learning experiences from each other. I hereby extend my invitation to all of you, and through you, welcome more Polish scholars to China, either pay more visits to CASS or exchange more with Chinese scholars, working together to promote academic exchange and co-operation among think tanks.

Finally, I wish this conference a great success!

Thank you very much!


来源:中国驻波兰使馆官网

2019年3月14日版